A Home. Before children were ignored and when they were of small age and had survived would be put to use. Children were indeed most of the time at home and did not go to school. Fathers and mothers were also both at home and would have both their (professional) occupation at home, for example farming or shop tending. The family members all had their activities and responsibilities and cared for each other in different ways. There was a communal thought behind it. Now the family life is separate and private. There is less work and labor and there are few people who come by unless invited at specifically defined social moments of the day. It is now a place of only leisure and rest, for intimacy and child rearing. The family when together will only spend the money that the separate members have earned outside this place.

Primitive culture. “In the lexicon of early anthropologists, any of numerous societies characterized by features that may include lack of a written language, relative isolation, small, relatively simple social institutions and technology, and a generally slow rate of socio cultural change. In some of these cultures history and beliefs are passed on through an oral tradition and may be the province of a person or group especially trained for the purpose.” From Encyclopedia Britannica, written by Elman R. Service.

Instinct. “What is really meant with instinct is ‘unconscious’, ‘not fully understood’ or even ‘automatic’. Instinct is an inborn, inherited biological drive, whereas behaviour and feelings that are unconscious or ‘automatic’ are usually much influenced by experience and may be purely the result of this even if they are not experienced in this way or fully understood. Today one cannot convincingly say ‘I want children because my maternal instincts drive me to have them.’ One needs to understand the feelings that one has and to analyze them. This is particularly important now that the question of having or not having children has become a matter of personal choice. To use instinct as an argument in some discussion, as it often is used, about mothering in a complex post-industrial society is naïve, political or an entrenched irrational belief.” From Inventing Motherhood, by Ann Dally

A Family. From a child-development perspective, a family is most usefully defined as a system in which children grow up. By other definitions, a family is an economic unit that does not have to include children at all. To economists, a family unit is a group of related persons whose resources are shared. Many economic families do function to rear children, but the elderly, the childless couple, and roommates are also economic family units.

Attachment. Within the attachment theory, attachment means “a biological instinct in which proximity to an attachment figure is sought when the child senses or perceives threat or discomfort. Attachment behavior anticipates a response by the attachment figure which will remove threat or discomfort”. According to Bowlby, J. (1960) ‘Separation Anxiety’ International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 41: 89-113

Ethics of Care. “American philosopher Nel Noddings provided one of the first comprehensive theories of care and argued that caring is the foundation of morality. She saw relationships as ontologically basic to humanity, where identity is defined by the set of relationships individuals have with other humans.
In suggesting that caring is a universal human attribute, Noddings asserted that a caring relation (a relationship in which people act in a caring manner) is ethically basic to humans. Since the impulse to care is universal, caring ethics is freed from the charge of moral relativism to the same degree as is virtue ethics. The ethics of care perspective stands in stark contrast to ethical theories that rely on principles to highlight moral actions—such as deontology and justice theory—and is not meant to be absolute and incontrovertible.” From Encyclopedia Britannica, written by Craig P. Dunn.

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