“Thus women’s entire education should be planned in relation to men.” Errors from the Past, by Rousseau

“Men and women are made for each other, but their mutual dependence is not equal. … We could survive without them better than they could without us. In order for them to have what they need … we must give it to them, we must want to give it to them, we must consider them deserving of it. They are dependent on our feelings, on the price we put on their merits, on the value we set on their attractions and on their virtues…  Thus women’s entire education should be planned in relation to men. To please men, to be useful to them, to wins their love and respect, to raise them as children, care for them; as adults, counsel and console them, make their lives sweet and pleasant: these are women’s duties in all ages and these are what they should be taught from childhood on.”

Jean- I Jacques Rousseau, Emile. I. By F. and P. Richard (Paris, 1939) p. 455

July 14,2015  |

“Mentally, socially, spiritually, a woman is more inferior than man (…).” Errors from the Past, 19th Century

“Mentally, socially, spiritually, she is more inferior than man. She herself is an inferior part of man, and her love and life are always something inferior and incomprehensible to him. . . . Woman is to deal with domestic affections and uses, not with philosophies and sciences. . . . She is priest, not king. The house, the chamber and the closet are the centers of her social life and power, as surely as the sun is the center of the solar system.”

Smith-Rosenberg, C., and Rosenberg, C. The female animal: medical and biological views of woman and her role in nineteenth-century America. Journal of American History, 1973, p. 337

June 30,2015  |

“Male seed is stronger than female seed”. Errors from the Past, by Hippocrates

“Men produce female as well as male seed. So do women. Male seed is stronger than female seed. . . . This is what happens: if the stronger seed comes from both sides, the product is male; if the weaker, then the product is female. The sex of the product is determined by whichever of the two kinds of seed prevails quantitatively. “

Hippocrates, Oeuvres Completes, ed. and trans. By E. Littre, 10 vols. (Paris, 1839-61) VII, p. 479.

June 16,2015  |

“Nature placed the female testicles internally. (…)” – Errors from the Past, 1564

“Nature placed the female testicles internally. … Woman is a most arrogant and extremely intractable animal; and she would be worse if she came to realize that she is no less perfect and no less fit to wear breeches than man. … I believe that is why nature, did so in such a way as to keep her from perceiving and ascertaining her sufficient perfection. On the contrary … to check woman’s continual desire to dominate, nature arranged things so that every time she thinks of her supposed lack, she may be humbled and shamed.

Borgarucci, Delia contemplatione anatomica sopra tutte le parti del corpo umano, (Venice, 1564), ch. 23.

May 19,2015  |

“(…) Women suffer the pain of having to nourish the child within their bodies (…)” – Error in 1556

“I would have preferred to omit this chapter on female testicles, that women might not become all the more arrogant by knowing that they also, like men, have testicles, and that they not only suffer the pain of having to nourish the child within their bodies … but also that they too put something of , their own into it.”

De Valverde, Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano, Rome, 1556, Book. 3, xv, p. 68.

May 5,2015  |

“The womb is subject to suffocation & moves from its place (…)” – Errors from the Past

“The womb is frequently subject to suffocation… It happens whenever the womb moves from its proper place. [It was believed in antiquity and down to the sixteenth century that the womb could move about in the body, lodge in the throat, and cause choking.] Then, as a result of a chill in the heart, women sometimes swoon, feel a weakness in the heart, or suffer dizziness… This illness befalls women when they are full of spoiled and poisonous menstrual blood. It would therefore be good for such women, whoever they be, whether young or old, to have frequent sexual intercourse so as to expel this matter.”

Albertus Magnus, De Secretis Mulierum, Lyons, 1615,  p. 163, 146-48.

April 21,2015  |

“Men have larger heads and more brains and sense than women (…)” – Errors from the Past

“For one sees that women’s visceral parts are bigger than those of men whose cupidity is less violent. On the other hand, men have larger heads and therefore have more brains and sense than women.”

Jean Bodin, De la demonomanie des sorciers, Paris, 1580, p. 225. Jean Bodin (l530-96) – French jurist, magistrate, political theorist, one of the most learned men of his day, and a darling of the intellectual historians.

April 7,2015  |

“Women conduct affairs not by the standard of universality…” – Errors from the past

“Women are certainly capable of learning, but they are not made for the higher forms of science, such as philosophy and certain types of artistic creativity; these require a universal ingredient. Women may hit on good ideas… but they lack the talent for the ideal. When women stand at the head of government, the state is immediately plunged into danger because they conduct affairs not by the standard of universality but in accordance with random opinions and inclinations.”

Hegel, Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts. by H. Glockner, Samtliche Werke, Stuttgart, 1928, VII, pp. 240-49.

February 4,2015  |